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Illuminare il viadotto Morandi

Peter Eisenman
1 Dicembre 2005
Il Progetto 27
1 Marzo 2006
 

È stato recentemente inaugurato l'allestimento per l'illuminazione del viadotto di Riccardo Morandi sul tratto autostradale Roma-Fiumicino. Il progetto è stato sviluppato per conto dell'ANAS da un gruppo di progettisti romani, Rosario Pavia, Pepe Barbieri e Alessandro Grassia, con i giovani Paola Brunori, Roberto Corradini, Andrea Pavia ed Elena Penso. Gli obiettivi del progetto sono sostanzialmente tre: realizzare una porta urbana per la città; riqualificare l'area sottostante il viadotto adiacente all'ansa del Tevere; restituire dignità e visibilità ad una grande opera di ingegneria della Roma Moderna. Il viadotto progettato e realizzato da Riccardo Morandi negli anni Sessanta si era trasformato nel tempo in luogo di passaggio e di attraversamento, in un elemento percepito soltanto per i suoi aspetti tecnici e strutturali. Il progetto di illuminazione, finalmente, ne valorizza l'impianto attraverso particolari e diversificate intensità della luce direzionate sulle diverse parti architettoniche e strutturali. Una luce più intensa e uniforme sul portale, ad esaltarne le imponenti dimensioni che trasformano questa opera in porta urbana, l'altezza pari a 34 metri e la larghezza di 20 metri, mentre una luce più sfumata negli stralli crea un contrasto con l'esile eleganza degli elementi in tensione; infine una luce bianca naturale per far risaltare il colore del cemento. Il sistema illuminante è composto da ventisei apparecchi, di una potenza variabile tra i 150W e i 400W, posizionati sia alla base della struttura per illuminare gli stralli e l'insieme del viadotto, che su pali per illuminare l'architrave. Il progetto di illuminazione permette, nel buio della sera, di guardare il viadotto anche nei suoi aspetti poetici e scoprire la ricchezza delle sensazioni che ci pervengono da questo oggetto architettonico e ingegneristico e non più soltanto tecnico. Nell'avvicinamento notturno, che per motivi di sicurezza non può purtroppo avere un andamento lento, il viadotto ci appare come un grande resto archeologico, assume le sembianze di un obelisco appoggiato sulle rive del Tevere. La luce si increspa sulle asperità della superficie di cemento, si trattiene tra le pieghe del materiale degradato, dandoci, in una brevissima frazione di tempo, una sensazione di immutabile eternità. "La luce porta vita negli oggetti e unisce spazio e forma. Un fascio di luce isolato all'interno di uno spazio architettonico, indugiando sulle superfici di un oggetto, ne evoca le ombre". (Tadao Ando) Ogni sera dalle nove all'una percorrendo l'autostrada Roma-Fiumicino è possibile rivivere il miracolo della luce, ovvero una luce azzurra che delicatamente invade la superficie strutturale dei piloni del viadotto e, trasformandosi in una piena luce bianca, evidenzia significativamente gli elementi principali dell'opera. Questo evento dimostra quanto sia importante per lo spazio e per un oggetto architettonico essere intimamente relazionati alla luce, sia naturale che artificiale. La luce, intesa come un materiale costruttivo immateriale, metamorficamente aggiunge arte all'architettura e architettura all'arte.

 

Nello spazio urbano, negli spazi legati alla memoria e all'archeologia era già chiara da tempo l'importanza di utilizzare l'illuminazione artificiale per esaltare forme ed insiemi architettonici; ma questa operazione di illuminare un viadotto può essere considerata come un primo esempio italiano che concede anche alle opere infrastrutturali l'inserimento nel campo dell'arte e dell'architettura. Infatti il progetto di allestimento integra il significato del viadotto di Riccardo Morandi ad un ambito non più esclusivamente funzionale, bensì lo restituisce alla città anche nella sua qualità di opera d'arte e "L'essenza dell'arte risiede nella soglia ove silenzio e luce si incontrano, dove la volontà di essere, di esprimere diventa la volontà di essere (...). La luce è la donatrice di ogni presenza (...) tutto quel che è fatto di luce getta un'ombra" (Louis Kahn). La luce essendo un elemento progettuale che rivela l'architettura anche nei suoi aspetti di impalpabilità e di evanescenza, necessita di una sapiente conoscenza per poterne calibrare opportunamente gli effetti. Come gli autori hanno dimostrato con questo riuscito allestimento luminoso, che ci rammenta le affermazioni, già nel 1927, di Teichmùller che considera la luce come "energia creatrice di spazi. (...) Da una parte, l'architettura e, dall'altra, la fonte di luce (lampada) e, soprattutto, la luce stessa che proviene dalla lampada, devono essere fuse in una unità artistica, così intimamente e inseparabilmente che si possa parlare di una architettura della luce". Illuminare il viadotto Morandi ha significato, inoltre, dare un riferimento preciso a coloro che percorrono questo tratto di autostrada. Il viadotto illuminato aiuta a distinguere la Roma della Magliana, a percepire la presenza del Tevere. Il progetto si estende anche al di sotto del viadotto, per riqualificare un territorio molto degradato, inquietante e abitato, abusivamente, da comunità di immigrati e di zingari. I progettisti Rosario e Andrea Pavia hanno previsto un parco fluviale collegato al paesaggio che si estende sull'altra riva, qualificato dalla presenza della pista ciclabile, che va da ponte Sublicio al ponte di Mezzocamino sul Grande Raccordo Anulare, e dall'Ippodromo di Tor di Valle. Il progetto si basa sull'allestimento di un unico sistema verde che include entrambe le sponde del fiume mediante l'impiego di due ponticanali delle idrovore connesse all'impianto di depurazione di Roma Sud. Il nuovo assetto realizza un anello ciclo-pedonale e una area da attrezzare con strutture di servizio inserite al di sotto del viadotto e piattaforme galleggianti per l'attracco dei traghetti che collegano Roma con Ostia Antica.

 
Giovanna Donini

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