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Oris Days of Architecture

Philip Johnson
1 Marzo 2005
Gunther Domenig
1 Giugno 2005
 

Zagabria, 23 - 24 ottobre 2004

 

"I giorni di Oris" - il simposio di 2 giorni organizzato annualmente dalla rivista Oris, rivista per la diffusione dell'architettura e della cultura, sono diventati un'importante parte dell'autunno zagabrese. Questa "festa dell'architettura" conta un proprio pubblico che di anno in anno diviene sempre più numeroso: dai 300 visitatori accolti nella piccola sala concerti del 2000 ai 900 spettatori presenti nella sala congressuale di Novi Zagreb del 2004. Se già dal secondo appuntamento "I giorni di Oris" avevano oltrepassato i confini dell'Europa Centrale ospitando architetti spagnoli e giapponesi, oggi l'internazionalità dell'appuntamento è divenuta una prassi. Ancora vivo è il ricordo delle entusiasmanti lectures di Shigeru Ban e Kengo Kuma caratterizzate da un'inusuale limpidezza e poetica, tutta orientale, che ha permeato quest'anno la conferenza di Itsuko Hasegawa. Non meno coinvolgenti le conferenze di Alfredo Arribas, Jose Antonio Martinez Lepena, Carlos Ferrater e, nell'autunno di quest'anno, Carme Pigem dello Studio RCR, che ha proposto con eloquenza la vitalità dell'architettura contemporanea ispanica. Specificità degli incontri organizzati dalla rivista Oris è l'inclusività, la grande apertura anche di fronte a posizioni teoriche contrapposte. Nelle giornate del 2004, di particolare interesse è stata la discussione intavolata dal giovane architetto austriaco Wolfgang Tschapeller attorno ai processi situati al limite tra arte e architettura. L'architetto, invitato ad esporre nella recente biennale diretta da Kurt Forster, nella sezione TRANSFORMATIONS ha presentato, all'Arsenale, il progetto BVA1 - study of urban tissue - lo studio surreale relativo alla trasformazione di una facciata tardo-moderna, progetto illustrato da Tschapeller anche nel simposio zagabrese. Di particolare interesse l'approccio metodologico dell'architetto basato su percorsi che passano dal modello gestuale all'animazione digitale per tornare nuovamente al modello digitale. Molto diverso l'approccio al progetto del lubianese Janez Ko2e1j. Architetto che fonda il proprio lavoro su "strategie di adattamento". Per Ko2elj non è importante l'ideologia, l'approccio ideologico, quanto l'intelligenza, la sperimentazione intellettiva in ogni progetto. Con ogni tema sperimentale, secondo Ko2elj, si instaura una teoria specifica. Irrilevanti le problematiche legate al linguaggio, in una sperimentazione che consiste sostanzialmente nel sommare esperienze positive derivate da diversi processi strategici. La finalità del lavoro di Ko±elj può essere ricondotta al tema del "design intelligente", approccio progettuale con cui realizzare qualità nuove, non soltanto le "qualità" interessanti gli investitori, ma una nuova qualità pubblica in architettura.

 

Qualità pubblica ricercata anche nei mega progetti degli architetti croati Medic e Puljiz, associati dello Studio olandese de Architekten CIE, di Amsterdam. La disciplina è lo strumento principe del loro lavoro progettuale, descritto da Kenneth Frampton come minimalismo laconico e dinamico. Medic e Puljiz credono nella grande dimensione, nell'"oversize" che tutto rende possibile e che, grazie alla sua struttura intrinsecamente aperta, è in grado di assorbire tutte le funzioni. In opposizione alle "megaforme" di Medic e Puljiz, gli architetti catalani operanti sotto il nome di RCR (Carme Pigem, Ramon Vilalta e Rafael Aranda) hanno esposto il proprio lavoro basato su piccoli, anche minimi passi. Operanti nella cittadina di Oloto, nella provincia di Girona, nel nord della Catalogna, gli architetti interpretano il luogo, il contesto con estrema attenzione, sottolineando, nei progetti, ogni particolare aspetto, anche legato a fenomeni naturali: la crescita degli alberi, l'umidità del suolo, i riflessi dalle superfici d'acqua, le stagioni nell'arco dell'anno. In un processo creativo intuitivo, RCR non scoprono né svelano bruscamente i luoghi e gli spazi (come ad esempio nel progetto per una pista di atletica o nel ristorante a Oloto), ma i luoghi vengono percepiti gradualmente, attraverso i "filtri specifici" del progetto. Non vi è la ricerca di stabilire un rapporto equilibrato con lo spazio: l'architettura di RCR non vuole sottomettere lo spazio, né allo spazio intende sottomettersi. Limpidezza e densità sono le caratteristiche del mondo architettonico dell'architetto croato Goran Rako. Nella sua lucida analisi del suo lavoro sono i nomi stessi dei progetti e delle loro aggregazioni a parlare dei rispettivi caratteri e strutture: "corridoi ipertrofici", "oasi", "lavori di terra", "molecole", "atomi", "vuoti", "micro-mondi". Si tratta, per ognuno di questi temi di sperimentazione, di precisi processi mentali risolti dalle sintesi progettuali. L'architetto israeliano Zvi Hecker ha illustrato la sua visione dell'architettura, una visione che è sia "conseguente" che "individuale". I principi geometrici della spirale (l'edificio a Ramat Gama, la scuola ebraica a Berlino) sono gli ispiratori del suo processo creativo. Un processo creativo basato anche sulla contaminazione, sulla sequenzialità tra ipotesi progettuali nel tempo che, trasferendo idee, consentono ai progetti di non rimanere sterili esercitazioni. È così che l'idea formale del girasole (la scuola ebraica di Berlino) si trasferisce prima in forma urbana e quindi in pagine di libro. Pagine che assurgono a tema simbolico, a simbolo di trasmissione culturale, a patria, per un popolo che non l'aveva. Pagine che ricompaiono anche nel disegno planimetrico della sinagoga in Lindenstrasse a Berlino, dove ogni immagine, ogni segno può essere letto come testo scritto. Quasi in contrapposizione ad una sorta di "teoria del perenne, o dell'invariante" proposta da Zvi Hecker (l'architettura è e sarà sempre la stessa, posto che il suo fruitore, l'uomo, è lo stesso da sempre), il "global player" Winy Maas (MVRDV) ha chiuso brillantemente il convegno zagabrese proiettando la platea in un processo progettuale fortemente sperimentale e assolutamente rivolto al futuro, dove ai termini di linguaggio, stile, forma, sono stati sostituiti quelli di sostenibilità, sfruttamento congruente e intelligente delle risorse, globalizzazione, economia... La quarta edizione delle "Giornate di Oris" che hanno visto presentare i propri progetti Goran Rako, Wolfgang Tschapeller, RCR, Medic e Puljiz, Janez Ko2elj, ltsuko Hasegawa, Zvi Hecker, Winy Maas e Wilhelm Helander è appena trascorsa, ma la quinta è già definita. L'appuntamento è per il prossimo 22 ottobre 2005, a Zagabria.

 
Vera Grimmer

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