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Casa sociale a Caltron

Il Progetto 44
4 Giugno 2020
Villa Adriana
4 Giugno 2020
 

Ritmo, Paesaggio, Materia.
Casa sociale a Caltron


L’idea progettuale di un oggetto architettonico di mediazione tra l’ambiente costruito e il paesaggio agricolo è il punto di partenza per la realizzazione di un oggetto di grande raffiatezza architettonica che, nell’affermare una propria autorevole e innovativa identità, si esprime in un profondo radicamento nel contesto. Ritmo, paesaggio, materia, architettura a km 0 caratterizzano il progetto di Mirko Franzoso per una casa sociale a Caltron (Trento), in val di Non. Il ritmo è quello dei fiari dei meleti, presenti ovunque nel paesaggio circostante, reinterpretati magistralmente, come elemento simbolico, dall’architetto nel disegno di un prospetto vibrante, eloquente e insieme mimetico, quasi magico. Una geometria ordinatrice e ordinata. Il paesaggio è quello montano della val di Non, interpretato nelle sue caratteristiche ambientali maggiormente peculiari, sia quelle del paesaggio antropizzato che di quello naturale. La materia, i cromatismi, l’esteriorità e l’interiorità, quella della tecnica costruttiva, legano questo progetto in maniera indissolubile e chiara al contesto, al paesaggio in cui è inserito: legno di larice e cemento colorato a reinterpretare il porfio trentino.
 
Si tratta di un’architettura semplice, quasi archetipica, per alcuni versi “post moderna”, nel suo ricercare assonanze formali con il paesaggio, con il contesto re interpretato. Al tempo stesso un’architettura complessa per il ruolo che svolge: un ruolo di limite, di margine, di soglia, di passaggio dal paesaggio costruito a quello agricolo. Un ruolo giocato con la forma e con il ritmo: la facciata dell’edificio pare “sgretolarsi”, svanire, trasformarsi negli elementi lignei verticali che sembrano voler fuggire, trasformarsi, in un attimo, negli elementi lignei dei meleti del paesaggio circostante. Un’architettura di “mezzo”, costruita ma quasi eterea, trasparente. Vibrante sotto la luce del sole che penetrando all’interno della fabbrica disegna inaspettate, variabili geometrie e collega, in una continuità esaltante, l’interno all’esterno, l’artificio alla natura. Un’architettura, si diceva, archetipica, semplice, radicata nel suolo. Appropriata, tanto da apparire l’unica soluzione possibile, quella maggiormente congruente a risolvere il tema, ad interpretarlo: quello di una casa sociale in una valle di montagna, in val di Non. Il ritmo che ne caratterizza i fronti è sorprendente, non solo nei due fronti principali caratterizzati da vuoti e pieni, ma anche in quelli laterali, dove l’orditura verticale del rivestimento in legno di larice accresce l’aspetto vibrante, dinamico del manufatto. Un oggetto architettonico che accresce, potenzia la qualità del paesaggio, che “accorda” - citando Heidegger - lo spazio e lo fa diventare luogo. Esalta la vista sulla vallata. Anche dall’interno la vista è straordinaria. Una finestra sulla valle e i versanti montani al di là della valle. Tutto sembra entrare e uscire, andarsene e tornare. Dall’interno la vista verso l’esterno emoziona. L’edificio, dall’esterno, rassicura. Impostato su uno schema planimetrico di estrema semplicità: una pianta rettangolare contenente un vano scala, un ampio ambiente e tre locali di servizio sul lato opposto alla scala al piano terra, e un ampio belvedere al piano superiore, l’edifiio è caratterizzato da una micro gioco geometrico di rottura della semplicità: un pilastro disassato disegna una copertura echeggiante a forme “esteticamente” contemporanee. Il basamento, tettonico, in calcestruzzo, lega fortemente il manufatto al terreno. Semplice anche la tecnica costruttiva: struttura a setti in calcestruzzo per l’interrato/basamento, struttura lignea per i due livelli superiori e per la copertura. Semplici ma raffinati i dettagli costruttivi, che denotano dominio della tecnica da parte dell’autore. Si tratta in qualche modo di un progetto riconducibile a quel “less is more” e a quel “light is more” che caratterizzano le grandi opere di architettura.
 
La nuova casa sociale per l’abitato di Caltron è un’architettura identitaria, un luogo di incontro per gli abitanti del luogo. Un luogo di socialità, in cui giovani, adulti ed anziani possono riconoscersi come comunità. “Un progetto semplice, elementare, in qualche modo addirittura banale. Ma banale come l’uovo di Colombo: con il senno del poi. È, in verità, il risultato di uno sforzo paziente e di un intuizione folgorante che appena formulata ha assunto la definitività di ciò che non poteva essere altrimenti; messaggio di lampante immediatezza ottenuta a forza di aggiustamenti continui e meticolosi; epopea avventurosa e intricata racchiusa nella dimensione ellittica di un limpido epigramma. Un progetto che ha ottenuto, grazie alla sua chiarezza cristallina ed essenziale concisione, lo scopo proprio di ogni grande progetto: far pensare”, citando l’editoriale di Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani, per la rivista DOMUS n.741, del mese di settembre 1992. Un risultato eccellente, maturo, consapevole.
 
Maurizio Bradaschia

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